Scientists who study substance use have discovered that women who use drugs can have issues related to hormones, menstrual cycle, fertility, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause. In addition, women themselves describe unique reasons for using drugs, including controlling weight, fighting exhaustion, coping with pain, and attempts to self-treat mental health problems. The number of women with opioid use disorder at labor and delivery quadrupled from Most drugs, including opioids and stimulants, could potentially harm an unborn baby. Use of some substances can increase the risk of miscarriage and can cause migraines, seizures, or high blood pressure in the mother, which may affect her fetus. In addition, the risk of stillbirth is 2 to 3 times greater in women who smoke tobacco or marijuana, take prescription pain relievers, or use illegal drugs during pregnancy. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology ACOG suggests that marijuana can result in smaller babies, especially in women who use marijuana frequently in the first and second trimesters.
Sex and gender differences in substance use
Substance use while pregnant and breastfeeding
Many heroin users receive methadone and other forms of treatment. In a sense, heroin-assisted treatment , a science-based, compassionate approach, is their last resort. While these programs have long been recognized as scientifically sound and cost-saving in countries like Switzerland, the Netherlands and Denmark, heroin-assisted treatment is only beginning to be offered in North America. Slowly, over a period of weeks and months, they let me document their lives outside the clinic. While I hoped to inform the public about heroin-assisted treatment, I also wanted to see if I could create visual counternarratives to challenge the dominant tropes of drug genre photography. I included their words with each photograph in the series. Before beginning my project, I had explored the work of some of the most influential drug genre photographers and found that most of them have consistently represented heroin users as exotic, primitive, and dangerous to society. Many view the series, which depicts teenagers experimenting with drugs, sexuality and guns, as brutally honest and revealing.
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Edited by Editorial Team. Leonard is a Doctor of Medical Science and a clinical anatomist. He has practiced in both internal and emergency medicine and has published several, peer-reviewed articles and a medical book chapter. Contact us today to speak to a professional. Our treatment programs are custom tailored to your specific needs. Source: CDC.
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Most men Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. Sexual behavior in the context of substance use is a growing area of scientific focus due to its role as a potential risk factor for the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STI.